Installing Passenger + Apache on a Digital Ocean production server
for Python apps + generic installation through source tarball

This page describes the installation of Passenger through the following operating system or installation method: generic installation through source tarball. Not the configuration you are looking for? Go back to the operating system / installation method selection menu.

On this page, we will install Passenger. After installing Passenger we can begin with deploying the app.

Table of contents

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Step 1: download and extract tarball

Download the latest Passenger source tarball.

Download tarball

Extract the tarball to some place permanent. Replace X.X.X with the Passenger version, and /somewhere-permanent with the actual directory path that you want to extract to. /opt is usually a good directory.

$ tar -xzvf passenger-X.X.X.tar.gz -C /somewhere-permanent

Step 2: install Ruby

Passenger supports multiple languages and its core is written in C++, but its installer and administration tools are written in Ruby, so you must install Ruby.

Even though Ruby is required, Ruby will normally not be loaded during normal operation unless you deploy a Ruby web application on Passenger. Passenger's dependency on Ruby is very minimal. See Lightweight Ruby dependency for details.

Debian, Ubuntu
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y ruby rake
Red Hat, CentOS, Fedora, ScientificLinux, Amazon Linux Enable EPEL, then run as root:
yum install -y ruby rubygem-rake
Arch Linux
sudo pacman -S ruby
macOS No action needed. Ruby is installed by default.
Other operating systems Install Ruby from the Ruby website.

Step 3: add Passenger to PATH

Add the Passenger bin directory to your PATH, so that your shell can locate the Passenger commands.

Open your shell's system-wide startup file. If you're using bash, this is usually /etc/bashrc or /etc/bash.bashrc. Inside that file, add this to the end:

export PATH

Again, replace X.X.X with the Passenger version, and /somewhere-permanent with the actual directory path.

When you're done, restart all your shells so that your new PATH takes effect.

Make sure your bashrc is actually included by your bash profile, which might not be the case if you created the user with useradd instead of adduser for example.

Step 4: run the Passenger Apache module installer

Run the Passenger Apache module installer and follow the on-screen instructions:

$ passenger-install-apache2-module

At the end of the installation process, you will be asked to copy and paste a configuration snippet (containing LoadModule, PassengerRoot, etc.) into your Apache configuration file.

Different operating systems and Apache installations have different conventions with regard to where the Apache configuration file is and how it is organized. Please read Working with the Apache configuration file if you are not familiar with it. That page is especially of interest for macOS Server >= 10.8 users because the configuration file may be at a surprising location.

Step 5: validate installation

After installation, please validate the install by running sudo passenger-config validate-install. For example:

$ sudo passenger-config validate-install
 * Checking whether this Phusion Passenger install is in PATH... ✓
 * Checking whether there are no other Phusion Passenger installations... ✓

All checks should pass. If any of the checks do not pass, please follow the suggestions on screen.

Finally, check whether Apache has started the Passenger core processes. Run sudo passenger-memory-stats. You should see Apache processes as well as Passenger processes. For example:

$ sudo passenger-memory-stats
Version: 5.0.8
Date   : 2015-05-28 08:46:20 +0200

---------- Apache processes ----------
PID    PPID   VMSize    Private  Name
3918   1      190.1 MB  0.1 MB   /usr/sbin/apache2

----- Passenger processes ------
PID    VMSize    Private   Name
12517  83.2 MB   0.6 MB    Passenger watchdog
12520  266.0 MB  3.4 MB    Passenger core
12531  149.5 MB  1.4 MB    Passenger ust-router

If you do not see any Apache processes or Passenger processes, then you probably have some kind of installation problem or configuration problem. Please refer to the troubleshooting guide.


Some of the dependent libraries are installed in non-standard locations. How do I allow the compiler to find them?

Please refer to Customizing the compilation process.

How do I pass additional flags to the compiler?

Please refer to Customizing the compilation process.

Next step

Now that you have installed Passenger, you are ready to deploy your Python application on the production server!

Continue: Deploy app »