Using SSL with Passenger in Production
This article covers how to configure your webserver to serve your app over https in a production deployment, and how to check it for correctness.
Obtain a Trusted SSL Certificate
In order to have your production SSL configuration trusted by your users' browsers, you need a certificate signed by a trusted Certificate Authority (CA). While you have many choices in this regard, most of them cost money. One free option that you have though is to obtain your certificate from the Let's Encrypt organization.
Choose your tradeoffs
A secure production ready configuration is an exercise in tradeoffs; broad compatibility and speed for strongest security. A great resource in this regard is the Mozilla SSL Configuration Generator which will provide you with up-to-date web server configurations that either maximize compatibility or security. The following configuration was designed to be more broadly compatible, but your situation may warrant maximum security.
The following is a partial example configuration for the Apache Web Server, meant to highlight the SSL configuration options you are likely to need in production. Replace
example.com with your domain, and set the paths to your certificates, key, and app.
ServerTokens Prod SSLStrictSNIVHostCheck off # Necessary if you have more than one domain served from this webserver <VirtualHost *:80> #redirect http traffic to https Redirect permanent / https://www.example.com/ ServerName example.com ServerAlias www.example.com </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost *:443> ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org ServerName example.com ServerAlias www.example.com DocumentRoot "/path/to/app/public" <Directory "/path/to/app/public"> Options None Require all granted # apache 2.4 Order allow,deny # apache 2.2 Allow from all # apache 2.2 </Directory> PassengerAppEnv production PassengerAppRoot "/path/to/app" PassengerHighPerformance on SSLEngine on SSLCertificateFile /path/to/signed_certificate # certificate for this server or wildcard certificate SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/private/key # private key for certificate SSLCertificateChainFile /path/to/intermediate_certificate # additional certificates provided by CA for compatibility SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 SSLHonorCipherOrder on SSLCipherSuite ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!DSS ServerSignature off SSLCompression off # not all combination of Apache+OpenSSL allow this option SSLSessionTickets off # apache 2.4 SSLUseStapling on # apache 2.4 SSLStaplingResponderTimeout 5 # apache 2.4 SSLStaplingReturnResponderErrors off # apache 2.4 SSLStaplingCache shmcb:/var/run/ocsp(128000) # apache 2.4 <IfModule headers_module> Header always edit Set-Cookie ^(.*)$ $1;HttpOnly;Secure Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains" </IfModule> #... </VirtualHost>
Test With SSL Labs
Qualys provides an excellent free test of your server's SSL configuration, you can use it here to check your setup for known issues. While a score of A or A+ is a good indication that you setup your config correctly, it is not a guarantee, so it's important to be informed or consult with someone who is.
You should also keep in mind that a secure configuration is a moving target, you have to stay up to date on the latest vulnerabilities that are discovered, and update your configuration accordingly.